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The active reviewing cycle - Roger Greenaway

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The Four Zones

1. Facts:

What happened?

What did you do?

2. Feelings

What did you experience?

How did you feel?

3. Findings

Why did that happen?

What are your learnings?

4. Futures

How will it affect you?

What are your hopes?

5. The joker

Helps to keep the whole process alive and adventurous

Facts What happened?

This is the diamond part of the cycle. A diamond is precious. A diamond is hard. The diamond represents hard facts.

The diamond stage is typically a memory exercise where people recall the sequence of events or describe key moments or forgotten details. Some people may see a different face of the diamond that others did not notice. (At this stage focus on different facts rather than different opinions).

The diamond stage is especially important if people were blindfolded, unobservant or in different places during the event being reviewed.

But... this 'first' stage is not always the best way to start a review.

If it was a short activity that has only just finished, or if participants have been very observant, it may seem like a waste of time simply to go over what happened.

If interest in communicating facts is low, you may discover higher interest in asking people to communicate what is less well known - how each other were feeling at key moments.

Feelings: What did you experience?

This is the hearts part of the cycle. It represents unmistakable 'gut' feelings as well as intuitive sensing - feelings on the fringes of perception.

This heart stage is for encouraging people to tune into their experiences and to express and share their feelings. If the nature of the experience is not sufficiently appreciated, there is a risk that subsequent learning will not be well grounded in what was actually experienced.

'Feelings about ...' or 'feelings that ...' are usually opinions. Opinions and judgements belong in the spades zone that comes next.

But ... people will soon tire of continual questioning about their feelings.

Your challenge is to create situations and opportunities in which people will want to and be able to share their experiences.

Here is a golden opportunity to develop communication skills - by experimenting with a range of active and creative reviewing methods.

It generally pays to start a review in 'diamonds' or 'hearts' but there will be times when you (and learners) are impatient to get the spades out and start digging...

Findings: Why did that happen?

This is the spades part of the cycle. Spades are for digging and investigating. The question 'why' belongs here. So do interpretations, meanings and judgements.

There will never be time to dig the whole field so take to care to ensure that most of the digging takes place in the most productive areas.

One way of doing this is to ask learners to brainstorm a list of issues they could explore. The brainstorm will expand awareness of the size of the field. How you choose where to dig next will depend on many factors.

Many people attempt to do all of their reviewing in this zone. 'Spade in hand' they welcome motivated learners but are soon accused of 'paralysis by analysis'.

A worse mistake is to greet people with the question "What did you learn?" - a question that does very little to facilitate any new learning from experience.

A useful strategy for dynamic reviewing at this stage is to have an interesting collection of 'spades' and to put these 'reviewing tools' in the hands of learners. Tools for deeper understanding?

Future: How will it affect you?

This is the clubs part of the cycle. This 3 leafed symbol represents future growth and possibilities. Folklore tells us that finding a 4 leaf clover brings good fortune and new possibilities.

In golf, you choose your club depending on where you are (driving off a tee or stuck in the sand) and on how far it is to your next target (a short putt or a long drive). As for 'spades' there should be a choice of suitable tools for learners to use. 'One-club' learners don't get very far!

The club stage is typically a planning exercise, but there are other ways of approaching the future... 

PREDICTIONS: What has changed already? What will be different anyway?

 POSSIBILITIES: What possibilities can you imagine? What choices do you have?

PLANS Decisions. Priorities. Objectives. Action plans. Learning plans.

REHEARSALS: Trying out plans in a 'test bed' - one step closer to the real thing.

DREAMS: Inspiring ideas that are not yet in your plans. Keep them alive!


Don't get stuck in one suit ... or sold on one sequence.


The Joker is the wildcard that you can play at any time

The Joker does not take this model too seriously

The Joker keeps you alert to contradictions

Th Joker gives the system a human face

The Joker is sharp, quick and perceptive

The Joker brings fresh perspectives

The Joker challenges procedures

The Joker is alive and dynamic

Every model has exceptions

Every game needs a Joker


Above all, the Joker lets you trust in your judgement and play your own game

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